A few years ago my Latin class was translating a section of Tacitus’ Histories- the first forty-six or so chapters of Book I. Tacitus is a fascinating author, and I highly recommend his prose, but the most intriguing part for me was the discovery of one Gaius Licinius Mucianus. Consul under Nero, governor of Syria in 67 AD, Mucianus is (in)famous for his role in the Year of the Four Emperors, 69 AD. Put simply, he is Vespasian‘s kingmaker. Tacitus (I.10) describes him thus:
luxuria industria, comitate adrogantia, malis bonisque artibus mixtus: nimiae voluptates, cum vacaret; quotiens expedierat: sed apud subiectos, apud proximos, apud collegas variis inlecebris potens, et cui expeditius fuerit tradere imperium quam obtinere.
He was a mixture of qualities good and bad; luxuriant and diligent; courteous and arrogant; his pleasures excessive whenever he had free time; [yet] as often as was convenient for him his virtues were great. Publicly he deserved praises; his private life had an ill reputation. But among subjects, friends, and colleagues he was powerful in point of his various blandishments; and [he was the kind of man] to whom it was more expedient to give away empire than to obtain [it for himself].
That is my translation, from some time ago, and one of the first pieces of Latin I ever memorised. What a fascinating figure! One can easily imagine him, a classical governor reclining in deep red cushions, smoking a hookah among half-naked men and women; yet a capable general and a clever politician, as sharp-witted as he is decadent. Once I investigated further, Mucianus’ own actions bear out this image of him- at least, as Tacitus portrays him.
Obviously caution must be used, for Tacitus contrasts Mucianus with Vespasian and therefore shows us what he wishes to reveal.
His early history seems to be rather obscure. Syme speculated that he may have arisen from Spain or Apennine Italy; his early career is vague save that he served as a legate in Armenia. At some point he suspected the wrath of Claudius and avoided exile by taking himself to Asia Minor. Tacitus noted this (I.10) as he being “as near to exile then as afterwards he was to the throne.” He returned to favour under Nero, and earned a series of provincial postings.
Williamson suspects that the ‘vagaries of his personal life’ may have endeared him to Nero. Considering that emperor’s decadence, and the similar tastes of Mucianus, that seems a reasonable possibility. It is also a rather simple answer.
By 66 Mucianus had become suffect consul (64) and governor of Syria. Tacitus reports on jealousy and some enmity between Vespasian (then governor of Judea) and he, but they had forged a friendship by 69 through the intervention of Titus, Vespasian’s son. Nero sent Vespasian to put down the Judean revolt, and Mucianus added those legions he controlled to those of his future emperor. Suetonius (Vesp. 6) claims that Mucianus ‘swallowed his jealousy’ to do so, and this seems likely. Two powerful men, rulers of neighbouring provinces? At any rate, they were now firm friends, and during the riotous events of 69 the two became even closer. Tacitus (II. 76-78) ascribes a speech from Mucianus as nudging a vacillating Vespasian into making the try for the throne. The entire speech is well worth a read; Mucianus makes a compelling argument for war, even if he is mostly focused upon himself rather than the gains to Vespasian. Then again, Vespasian would make himself imperator; a reward in itself.
For the details of the military campaigns in 69 there are several good scholars who go into detail (Syme 1977; Levick 2005 (47-49). It is clear even from Tacitus gliding somewhat over the details that Mucianus was a skilled general, even if at the same time a careful politician. He always ensured he himself took the praise for successful battles, even when others did the fighting. On the other hand, he acted swiftly and decisively when Dacian barbarians surged forth to seize the Danube; it was ostensibly for this he was later given a triumph (Tac. III. 46; Syme).
On entering Rome, Mucianus took “everything into his own hands” (Tac. IV.6). Vespasian would later balance his ruthlessness with generosity, such as conferring a dowry upon Vitellius’ daughter. I suspect that this was a careful political game the pair played: Mucianus executed dangerous figures such as Vitellius’ son, while Vespasian was absent and therefore clean of hand. If this is the case, it was well-played. Tactius writes of Mucianus as somewhat of a decadent villain, while his depiction of Vespasian is somewhat reserved (II.5):
He [Vespasian] would have been quite equal to the generals of old if he had not been avaricious. Mucianus, on the other hand, was eminent for his magnificence and wealth and by the complete superiority of his scale of life to that of a private citizen. He was the readier speaker, experienced in civil administration and statesmanship. It would have been a rare combination for an emperor if the faults of the two could have been done away with and their virtues only combined in one man.
My brief experience in reading of Mucianus and Vespasian leads me to suspect that they did just that. Vespasian remained the humble general, the soldier-turned-emperor, while Mucianus did the bloody work and enjoyed the fruits of power while standing behind the throne. He was a clever politician, rewarding the subordinates of political enemies and playing allied factions against themselves. Tacitus notes his Machiavellian talents when discussing the rancor between Mucianus and Antoninus, another Flavian commander:
Of all this [Antonius’ attempt to discredit him] Mucianus was fully aware, and the result was bitter enmnity, fostered more openly by Antonius, with cunning and therefore more implacably by Mucianus.
Later, Mucianus would remove the threat of Antonius by first praising him and promising power and granting his friends influence and position; and then destroying his military strength (Tac. IV. 39).
Certainly Mucianus was an arrogant man, as Tacitus’ first description of him hints. Suetonius (Vesp. 13) claims that he treated the emperor with a certain degree of disrespect. While Vespasian is credited with not allowed Mucianus to get the better of him, the emperor’s retort is interesting: “But personally, I am content to be a male.” Tacitus also notes instances when Mucianus offended the senate, particularly as he was establishing order in Rome. Yet they granted him his triumphal honours in the aftermath of the civil war, nominally for his success against the Dacians during 69 (Tac. IV.4). He additionally became consul twice more (70, 72 AD), a feat very few ever attained.
In his final years he appears to have turned to literary matters. Perhaps he had fallen from favour somewhat, or it was the natural outcome of a long career as a military man and a politician. Unfortunately, nothing has survived intact. Pliny cites miraculous occurences from Mucianus’ memoir (see Williamson), while a passage in Tacitus’ Dialogus (37) indicates that he edited various volumes of letters and the like from Republican Rome. It’s a great shame that none of this survives, as much of the man could be gleaned from his writings.
His death preceded the publication of Pliny’s Natural History (77 AD), meaning that he did not long survive his third and final consulship.
Suetonius. Translated by Robert Graves as The Twelve Caesars. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1957. [Of course there are better editions, but this is mine.]
Tacitus. Translated by Clifford H. Moore as The Histories. London: Harvard University Press, 1925. [Except for the part I translated, all other references to Tacitus use the Loeb.]
Levick, Barbara. Vespasian. London: Routledge, 2005.
Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden : Steiner, 1978.
Syme, Ronald. Tacitus. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.
Syme, Ronald. “The March of Mucianus.” Antichthon 11 (1977): 78-92
Williamson, George. “Mucianus and a Touch of the Miraculous: Pilgrimage and Tourism in Roman Asia Minor.” In Pilgrimage in Graeco-Roman and Early Christian Antiquity: Seeing the Gods. Jaś Elsner and Ian Rutherford, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.